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Revue internationale d’Histoire Militaire Ancienne – HiMA 8, 2019
Auteur : Jean-Christophe COUVENHES, Giusto TRAINA, Francesca GAZZANO
Lieu d'édition : Besançon
Année de parution : 2019
Nombre de pages : 332p.
ISBN : 9782848677200
Format : 16*24

PUFC

[Sommaire]
Introduction
Francesca GAZZANO, Giusto TRAINA, Jean-Christophe COUVENHES, Plutarque et la guerre

Réalité et idéal de la guerre chez Plutarque
Pascal PAYEN, La tradition critique sur la guerre dans les Vies Parallèles : problèmes de narration et dénonciation
Luisa PRANDI, Plutarco, gli storici e la guerra: per un commento ad Alex., 1, 2 (μᾶλλον ἢ μάχαι μυριόνεκροι καὶ παρατάξεις αἱ μέγισται καὶ πολιορκίαι πόλεων)
Roberto NICOLAI, I discorsi militari nelle Vite parallele di Plutarco
Lia Raffaella CRESCI, La τόλμα del comandante nelle Vite plutarchee: virtù o vizio?
Maria Teresa SCHETTINO, Les vertus militaires de l’homme d’État dans les Vies romaines de Plutarque
Jean-Marie KOWALSKI, Blessures physiques, blessures psychiques chez Plutarque

Tactique et stratégie militaire chez Plutarque
Jean-Nicolas CORVISIER, Les risques du métier de général dans le monde de Plutarque
Matteo ZACCARINI, “La più grande e più bella tra le gesta”: Plutarco e la monomachia
Simone PODESTÀ, La Grecia e la gloria sul mare: naumachie nelle Vite greche del V secolo a.C.

L’histoire militaire chez Plutarque
Francesco MARI, La legge navale del 483/2 nella Vita di Temistocle di Plutarco. Dalla strategia bellica nella guerra contro Egina alla leadership politica in Atene
Cinzia BEARZOT, La continuazione della guerra contro la Persia dopo il 478 nella tradizione plutarchea
Federicomaria MUCCIOLI, Lo scontro di Alessandro con i Malli in Plutarco. Realtà storica e deformazione
Marco ENRICO, Dioniso alla guerra: Demetrio Poliorcete secondo Plutarco
Jean-Christophe COUVENHES, La place de la trahison de Damotélès dans le récit plutarchéen de la défaite de Cléomène III de Sparte lors de la bataille de Sellasie
Lucia VISONÀ, Les campagnes parthiques dans les Vies Parallèles de Plutarque
Maxime BOUTEAU, Plutarque et l’Arménie. Une barbarité exacerbée

[Contents]

Héritier de toute la tradition de ses devanciers, Plutarque tient sur la guerre un discours la décrivant comme une réalité néfaste, preuve de la folie des hommes. Néanmoins, celui qui passe trop souvent encore pour le biographe de Chéronée opère un véritable traitement des récits de guerre dans ses Vies Parallèles. Dans son écriture, Plutarque déploie toute une palette tactique et stratégique lui permettant d’exercer – aussi – ses mérites d’historien militaire. Ce nouveau numéro de HiMA rassemble 18 contributions élaborant les interventions au séminaire franco-italien « Plutarque et la guerre / Plutarco e la guerra », qui s’est déroulé à Paris et à Gênes durant l’année universitaire 2015-20166.

Heir to the entire tradition of its predecessors, Plutarch holds a discourse on war that describes it as a harmful reality, proof of the madness of men. Nevertheless, the one who still too often passes for the biographer of Chaeronea still carries out a real treatment of war stories in his Parallel Lives. In his writing, Plutarch deploys a whole tactical and strategic palette that allows him to exercise - also - his merits as a military historian. This new issue of HiMA brings together 18 contributions elaborating the interventions at the Franco-Italian seminar « Plutarque et la guerre / Plutarco e la guerra », which took place in Paris and Genoa during the academic year 2015-2016.

Heredero de toda la tradición de sus predecesores, Plutarco sostiene un discurso sobre la guerra que la describe como una realidad dañina, prueba de la locura de los hombres. Sin embargo, el que todavía pasa demasiado a menudo por el biógrafo de Querétaro Chaeronea sigue haciendo un tratamiento real de las historias de guerra en sus Vidas Paralelas. En sus escritos, Plutarco despliega toda una paleta táctica y estratégica que le permite ejercer -también- sus méritos como historiador militar. Este nuevo número de HiMA reúne 18 contribuciones que elaboran las intervenciones en el seminario franco-italiano « Plutarque et la guerre / Plutarco e la guerra », que tuvo lugar en París y Génova durante el año académico 2015-2016.


Descriptif du collectif
  • Auteur : Pascal PAYEN
    La tradition critique sur la guerre dans les Vies Parallèles : problèmes de narration et dénonciation
    [Résumé]

    Dans l’historiographie grecque, au moins depuis Hérodote jusqu’à Plutarque, la guerre est appréhendée comme un problème, non comme une évidence ou un moyen ordinaire permettant aux « cités des hommes » de régler leurs différends. Comment cette tradition critique au sujet de la guerre s’est-elle formée ? Comment Plutarque a-t-il pris place dans cet héritage politique et culturel ? Quelle vision de la guerre et des conquérants, des armes et des Romains lancés dans la guerre les Vies parallèles et certains traités des Moralia offrent-elles ?

    Mots-clés : Guerre, Historiographie grecque, Plutarque, Vies parallèles, Préceptes politiques, Rome.

    Abstract: In greek historiography, at least from Herodotus to Plutarch, the war is considered as a problem but not as an evidence, not as means of defence to allow the cities of human beings to settle their disagreements. How was developing this critical tradition about war? How Plutarch took place in this political and cultural legacy? What vision of the war and the conquerors, of the arms and the Romans during the wars propose the Bioi paralleloi and many treatises of the Moralia?

    Keywords: War, Greek historiography, Plutarch, Vitae parallelae, Politika paraggelmata, Rome.


  • Auteur : Luisa PRANDI
    Plutarco, gli storici e la guerra: per un commento ad Alex., 1, 2 (μᾶλλον ἢ μάχαι μυριόνεκροι καὶ παρατάξεις αἱ μέγισται καὶ πολιορκίαι πόλεων)
    [Résumé]

    Plutarco afferma che i contenuti di tipo militare sono meno importanti e rivelatori per le finalità biografiche che egli si prefigge; tuttavia essi occupano in quasi tutte le Vite uno spazio notevole. L’articolo analizza le strategie con cui Plutarco li tratta, privilegiando i passi in cui si impegna in polemiche storiografiche. Sulla scorta di questo, considera qualche passaggio particolarmente esplicito riguardo a funzione, ragioni e conseguenze del momento bellico nella storia (Marc., 1 e 21, 3; Sull., 6, 2-5; Comp. Lyc Numa, 4, 7).

    Parole-chiave: Plutarco, Guerra, Battaglie, Greci, Romani, Storiografia, Biografia.

    Abstract: Plutarch says that battles, deployment of armies and sieges are not so impressive for his biographical purposes. However, these topics are very frequent in the Lives. The paper focuses particularly on the Plutarch’s controversies involving other historians about military matters. Other passages, concerning the right and the wrong of the war and offering not merely biographical features, are taken into consideration (Marc., 1 e 21, 3; Sull., 6, 2-5; Comp. Lyc Numa, 4, 7).

    Keywords: Plutarch, War, Battles, Greeks, Romans, Historiography, Biography.


  • Auteur : Roberto NICOLAI
    I discorsi militari nelle Vite parallele di Plutarco
    [Résumé]

    Il contributo esamina i discorsi militari presenti nelle Vite di Plutarco e si sofferma sia sulle due tipologie principali (i discorsi alle truppe e i colloqui tra i comandanti e gli ufficiali che precedono la battaglia) sia su tipologie meno frequenti come i dialoghi tra i soldati e i discorsi finalizzati a esaltare la virtù del comandante. Rispetto alla storiografia i discorsi di esortazione alle truppe sono più brevi, mentre sono particolarmente sviluppati i colloqui tra i comandanti e gli ufficiali, mediante i quali vengono messe in risalto da un lato l’abilità strategica del comandante, dall’altro la sua capacità dialettica di far prevalere la propria opinione, magari servendosi di battute inattese e per questo efficaci.

    Parole-chiave: Plutarco, Guerra, Battaglie, Discorsi, Colloqui, Strategia, Dialettica.

    Abstract: The paper examines the military discourses present in the Lives of Plutarch and focuses on the two main types (speeches to the troops and talks between the commanders and the officers before the battle) and on less frequent types such as the dialogues between the soldiers and the speeches aimed at enhancing the virtue of the commander. Compared to historiography, the speeches of exhortation to the troops are shorter, while the interviews between the commanders and the officers are particularly developed, through which the strategic ability of the commander is highlighted, on the other hand his dialectical capacity to make their opinion prevail, perhaps using unexpected jokes and therefore effective ones.

    Keywords: Plutarch, War, Battles, Speeches, Talks, Strategy, Dialectics.


  • Auteur : Lia Raffaella CRESCI
    La τόλμα del comandante nelle Vite plutarchee: virtù o vizio?
    [Résumé]

    Il contributo prende in esame il giudizio plutarcheo dell’audacia del comandante nelle Vite, confrontandolo con quello espresso nei Moralia. Nelle Vite Plutarco non può non osservare che l’audacia, in alcune circostanze, risulta decisiva per conseguire la vittoria, benchè, da un punto di vista morale, sia un eccesso. Quando però si considerino gli esiti politici, l’audacia deve essere unita a una formazione filosofica, come nel caso di Alessandro. Plutarco, cioè, cerca, sia pure con difficoltà, di trovare un accordo tra la valutazione morale dell’audacia nei Moralia e la veridicità del resoconto storico delle Vite.

    Parole-chiave: Comandante, τόλμα, εὐλάβεια, Coerenza tra Moralia e Vite di Plutarco.

    Abstract: The paper analyzes the evaluation that Plutarch provides of the boldness of the commander in the Lives, comparing it with that expressed in the Moralia. In the Lives Plutarch can not fail to note that, in some circumstances, audacity is decisive for victory, although from the moral point of view it represents an excess. However, for the achievement of lasting results also on a political level, audacity must be accompanied by a philosophical formation, such as in Alessandro. In this way Plutarch tries, albeit with some difficulty, to grant the moral judgment of the Moralia with the veracity of the historical reconstruction of the Lives.

    Keywords: Commander’s Rashness, Prudence, Coherence between Plutarch’s Moralia and Lives.


  • Auteur : Maria Teresa SCHETTINO
    Les vertus militaires de l’homme d’État dans les Vies romaines de Plutarque
    [Résumé]

    Cet article propose une étude de la Vie plutarchéenne de Paul-Émile. Son portrait n’est pas hagiographique, mais souligne les savoir-faire politiques et militaires nécessaires à l’homme d’État dans le contexte d’une Rome tournée vers la conquête de l’oikoumene. Paul-Émile fut d’après Plutarque le modèle du commandant romain de l’époque des conquêtes, qui, grâce à ses compétences découlant du respect des institutions et des mœurs romaines, assura à Rome la victoire sur le royaume des Antigonides. Cette victoire acquit une valeur symbolique dès l’Antiquité et cristallisa le mythe de son protagoniste.

    Mots-clés : Conquête romaine, Pydna, Paul-Émile, Titus Quinctius Flamininus, Plutarque.

    Abstract: This article focuses on Plutarch’s Life of Lucius Aemilius Paullus. The portrait sketched out in Plutarch’s biography is not merely hagiographic, but it emphasizes the political and military skills necessary to the statesman in the context of a Rome turned to the conquest of oikoumene. According to Plutarch, Paul-Émile was the model of the Roman commander of the time of conquest, who, thanks to his virtues and skills derived from the respect of Roman institutions and traditions, allowed Rome the victory over the kingdom of the Antigonides. This victory acquired a symbolic value since antiquity and crystallized the myth of its protagonist.

    Keywords: Roman Conquest, Pydna, Lucius Aemilius Paullus, Titus Quinctius Flamininus, Plutarch.


  • Auteur : Jean-Marie KOWALSKI
    Blessures physiques, blessures psychiques chez Plutarque
    [Résumé]

    Bien qu’il n’ait pas fait personnellement l’expérience de la guerre, Plutarque propose dans son œuvre de nombreuses représentations des blessures physiques et traumatismes psychologiques. Quoique la cause des troubles psychiques ne soit généralement pas explicitement imputable à des conflits, ils occupent une place prépondérante sous la plume de Plutarque. La représentation des blessures physiques est quant à elle l’occasion d’une réflexion sur les traits moraux du grand homme qui remet en question l’idée d’une acceptation universelle et sans conditions des souffrances pour accéder à ce statut.

    Mots-clés : Blessures physiques, Blessures psychiques, Guerre, Grand homme, Philosophie, Médecine.

    Abstract: Even if Plutarch had no personal experience of war, his Lives and Moralia are full of representations of physical wounds and psychological trauma. War is not explicitly the main cause of psychological trauma, nevertheless these are very often mentioned. On the other side, representing physical wounds is a means of proposing a reflection about the main moral features of the great man that rebuts the idea that injuries should be accepted without any conditions.

    Keywords: Physical Wounds, Psychological Trauma, War, Great Man, Philosophy, Medicine.


  • Auteur : Jean-Nicolas CORVISIER
    Les risques du métier de général dans le monde de Plutarque
    [Résumé]

    Cessant, sauf dans une certaine idéologie, d’être un simples soldat-citoyen, le général subit des risques spécifiques à sa fonction. Sur cinq siècles, Plutarque apporte sur ce point la longue durée et la possibilité de comparaison Grecs-Romains. On connaît les risques de mort ou de blessure et les risques politiques (procès, exil, mort). Plutarque permet d’y ajouter les risques psychologiques : pressions subies, dissensions et manques de discipline à gérer, hybris etc. L’étude statistique permet d’en apprécier l’importance. Les risques du métier sont réels et importants dans le monde antique. Seule la présence de risques équivalents dans la vie quotidienne et dans un monde où la guerre était normale, permettaient de le supporter.

    Mots-clés : Commandement, Combat, Mort, Blessure, Procès.
    The risks of the trade in general in the world of Plutarch Abstract: No longer, except in a certain ideology, being a simple soldier-citizen, the general experiences of risks specific to its function. Over 5 centuries, Plutarch brings on this point the long term and the possibility of comparison Greeks and Romans. We know the risks of death or injury and political risk (trial, exile, death). Plutarch allows to add psychological risks: pressures, dissension and lack of discipline to manage, hybris etc. The statistical study to assess the importance. The risks are real and important in the ancient world. Only the presence of equivalent risks in everyday life and in a world where the war was normal, allowed to stand.

    Keywords: Command, Combat, Death, Injury, Trial.


  • Auteur : Matteo ZACCARINI
    “La più grande e bella tra le gesta”. Plutarco e la monomachia
    [Résumé]

    L’articolo analizza gli elementi caratterizzanti delle principali descrizioni plutarchee di duelli (monomachie) combattuti da personaggi greci e romani. L’analisi evidenzia come l’epica omerica sia il principale modello di riferimento per questi episodi: il confronto verbale e visivo, le dimensioni e la prestanza fisiche, le armi ornate, l’aspetto spaventoso dei combattenti, costituiscono elementi ricorrenti e privilegiati rispetto a quelli storicamente più verosimili o alla coerenza interna al corpus plutarcheo. Attraverso una raffinata rielaborazione Plutarco conferisce ai duelli un tono eroico, drammatico, che rimanda a un passato lontano e che trova riscontro negli interessi letterari di un pubblico colto.

    Parole-chiave: Plutarco, Duello, Monomachia, Stratego, Status, Tradizione Eroica.

    Abstract: This paper analyses the fundamental elements of Plutarch’s major accounts of duels (monomachies) fought by Greek and Roman characters. It shows how Homeric epic represents the main model for these episodes: the verbal and visual confrontation, the physical size and prowess, the adorned weapons, and the frightening appearance of the combatants, are the most frequently recurring elements, which regularly take precedence over historical plausibility or consistency within Plutarch’s corpus. Through a refined reworking, Plutarch imbues the duels with a heroic, dramatic tone which echoes a distant past and meets the literary culture of learned readers.

    Keywords: Plutarch, Duel, Monomachy, Strategos, Status, Heroic Tradition.


  • Auteur : Simone PODESTA
    La Grecia e la gloria sul mare: naumachie nelle Vite greche del V secolo a.C.
    [Résumé]

    Analizzando le Vite plutarchee emerge con chiarezza che la perizia nell’arte della guerra navale è considerata parte integrante del bagaglio di conoscenze necessarie al buon comandante. Per questo motivo, nel ripercorrere i fatti salienti delle biografie dei suoi personaggi, incluse numerosi riferimenti alle naumachie. Il presente articolo analizza e riflette sulle battaglie navali presenti nelle Vite greche del V secolo, un secolo che favorì l’interesse di Plutarco per questo tipo di guerra per la presenza di comandanti navali di eccezionali capacità, come Temistocle, Cimone, Pericle e Alcibiade.

    Parole-chiave: Plutarco, Vite Parallele, Battaglie navali, Storia greca, Storia militare, Storia romana.

    Abstract: Analysing the Plutarch’s Lives, it emerges that the skill in the art of naval warfare was considered a part of knowledge necessary for a good commander. For this reason, Plutarch, in retracing the salient facts of the biographies of his characters, included various references to their naval battles. This article analyses the naval battles present in the Greek Lives of the fifth century, a period that favoured an interest of Plutarch in this type of war for the presence of extraordinary naval commanders, such as Themistocles, Cimon, Pericles and Alcibiades.

    Keywords: Plutarch, Parallel Lives, Naval Battles, Greek History, Military History, Roman History.


  • Auteur : Francesco MARI
    La legge navale del 483/2 nella Vita di Temistocle di Plutarco. Dalla strategia bellica nella guerra contro Egina alla leadership politica in Atene
    [Résumé]

    A partire dal giudizio sui progetti politici di Temistocle formulato da Plutarco in concomitanza col resoconto della proposta di legge del 483/2 a.C., questo contributo cerca di sfruttare alcune informazioni contenute nella biografia plutarchea per mettere in relazione tra di loro i pochi dati trasmessi dalle fonti riguardo alla politica ateniese del decennio 490-480 a.C. Tale lettura politica della strategia bellica di Temistocle mette in luce i nuovi caratteri della leadership politica in Atene dopo le riforme clisteniche, ancora oscuri per molti contemporanei.

    Parole chiave: Plutarco, Temistocle, Egina, Ostracismo, Fazioni politiche, Dèmos ateniese.

    Abstract: Starting from the judgement on Themistocles’ political plans, that Plutarch formulates while accounting for the naval law proposal of 483/2 BC, this paper aims to exploit some pieces of information drawn from the Life of Themistocles to suggest links within the scanty evidence for Athenian politics during the 480s. Such a political interpretation of Themistocles’ war strategy enlightens the new features of the Athenian political leadership after Clisthenes’ reform, which had remained obscure to many contemporaries.

    Keywords: Plutarch, Themistocles, Aegina, Ostracism, Political factions, Athenian demos.


  • Auteur : Cinzia BEARZOT
    La continuazione della guerra contro la Persia dopo il 478 nella tradizione plutarchea
    [Résumé]

    Il contributo esamina la tradizione sulla continuazione della guerra contro la Persia dopo il 478, cercando di enucleare le caratteristiche della versione di Plutarco e di mettere a fuoco il rapporto con le altre fonti.

    Parole chiave: Guerra, Persiani, Plutarco.

    Abstract: The paper considers the tradition on the continuation of the war against the Persians after 478, in order to identify the characteristics of Plutarch’s account and to highlight the relation with other sources.

    Keywords: War, Persians, Plutarch.


  • Auteur : Federicomaria MUCCIOLI
    Lo scontro di Alessandro con i Malli in Plutarco. Realtà storica e deformazione
    [Résumé]

    Nell’articolo si indagano le differenti tradizioni sullo scontro di Alessandro contro i Malli (326/5 a.C.) in Plutarco e nelle fonti parallele. Questo rappresenta uno degli episodi più intensi della biografia del Macedone, nel quale fu ferito e salvato dai suoi compagni. La tradizione più autorevole, rappresentata da Aristobulo e riflessa da Plut., Alex., 63, 9; De Alex. Magni fort. aut virt., II, 341c, colloca l’episodio tra Malli e i nomi dei salvatori sono quelli di Peucesta e Limneo. Altrove, nella duplice orazione Plutarco segue la vulgata, pur con qualche confusione e qualche cambiamento: Alessandro combatté contro gli Ossidraci e tra i compagni accorsi al suo fianco figura Tolemeo. Una presenza sicuramente non attendibile, inventata da Clitarco ed elaborata successivamente da Timagene.

    Parole chiave: Alessandro Magno, Malli, Ossidraci, Plutarco, Tolemeo, Peucesta, Storici di Alessandro Magno, Clitarco, Timagene.

    Abstract: The aim of my paper is to investigate the traditions over the fight of Alexander against the Malli (326/5 BC) in Plutarch and in parallel sources: it constitues one of the most vivid episodes of the biography of the Macedon, in which he was injured and saved from death from his companions. The most reliable tradition, constitued by Aristobulus (in Plut., Alex., 63 e in De Alex. Magni fort. aut virt., II, 341c), places the episode among the Malli and the saviours of Alexander were Peucestas and Limneus. In other passages of the two orations Plutarch is more confused, choosing the so-called vulgata with some slight changes: Alexander fought against the Oxydrakai and among the saviours there was Ptolemy. Nevertheless, his presence was invented by Clitarchus and then elaborated by Timagenes.

    Keywords: Alexander the Great, Malli, Oxydrakai, Plutarch, Ptolemy, Peucestas, Historians of Alexander the Great, Cleitarchus, Timagenes.


  • Auteur : Marco ENRICO
    Dioniso alla guerra: Demetrio Poliorcete secondo Plutarco
    [Résumé]

    Il lavoro esamina il ritratto plutarcheo di Demetrio Poliorcete: sulla base del principio platonico delle grandi nature portate a generare sia grandi virtù che grandi vizi, Plutarco costruisce un’immagine dell’Antigonide che pare accentuare i tratti dionisiaci già presenti nella propaganda di Demetrio. A questo scopo, il biografo rielabora le fonti per creare una grande natura corrotta dall’adulazione ateniese: esemplificativa di questa rielaborazione può essere la scomparsa della πρᾳότης dalle virtù del Poliorcete plutarcheo.

    Parole chiave: Plutarco, Vite parallele, Demetrio Poliorcete, Adulazione, Teatralità, Degenerazione morale.

    Abstract: Aim of this paper is to analyse the portrait of Demetrius Poliorcetes, as it emerges from Plutarch work. The biographer, on the basis of Plato’s assertion that great natures are able to produce great virtues as well as great vices, portrays the Antigonid emphasizing his Dionysian traits already present in Demetrius’ propaganda. For this purpose, Plutarch processes the sources in order to create a great nature, corrupt by Athenian flattery: an evidence of this reworking may be the absence of πρᾳότης among Demetrius’ virtues in the Plutarchean portrait.

    Keywords: Plutarch, Parallel Lives, Demetrius Poliorcetes, Flattery, Theatricality, Moral Degeneration.


  • Auteur : Jean-Christophe COUVENHES
    La place de la trahison de Damotélès dans le récit plutarchéen de la défaite de Cléomène III de Sparte lors de la bataille de Sellasie
    [Résumé]

    La contribution prend en considération le passage de Plutarque relatif à la trahison de Damotélès, le préposé spartiate à la cryptie, lors de la bataille de Sellasie de 222 av. J.-C. Sur ce champ de bataille, localisé en différents endroits depuis le xixe siècle, les troupes de Cléomène III, le roi des Lacédémoniens furent écrasées par celles d’Antigone Dôsôn, le roi des Macédoniens. Effacée dans le récit que donne Polybe de la bataille, cette tradition remonte à l’historien Phylarque. Il s’agit de réévaluer la place de cette source prospartiate qui attribue la défaite de Sellasie à un facteur indépendant (la trahison de Damotélès) de la performance des forces de Cléomène. Et de montrer la qualité de Plutarque comme historien de la guerre.

    Mots clés : Polybe, Phylarque, Sellasie, Champ de bataille, Voyageurs, Sparte hellénistique.

    Abstract: The paper considers the Plutarchaean account of the betrayal of Damotélès, the spartian official of crypteia, during the battle of Sellasia (222 BC). On this battlefield, located in different places since the nineteenth century, the troops of Cleomenes III, the king of the Lacedaemonians were crushed by those of Antigone Dôsôn, the king of the Macedonians. Deleted in the polybian account of the battle, this tradition appears in Phylarch. The place of this prospartiate source, attributing the defeat of Sellasia to an independent factor (Damoteles’ betrayal), distinct from the value of the Cleomenic forces, needs to be reassessed. This demonstrates Plutarch’s qualities, as a military historian.

    Keywords: Polybius, Phylarch, Sellasia, Battlefield, Travelers, Hellenistic Sparta.


  • Auteur : Lucia VISONA
    Les campagnes parthiques romaines dans les Vies Parallèles de Plutarque
    [Résumé]

    Les Vies Parallèles consacrent un espace remarquable aux campagnes parthiques, sans doute en relation avec la situation contemporaine (la campagne parthique de Trajan). Cet article analyse le récit des campagnes orientales de quatre chefs d’armée romains (Lucullus, Crassus, César et Antoine). Nous allons d’abord étudier les relations que Plutarque établit entre leurs projets, en nous concentrant surtout sur le passage qui relate le dernier projet de conquête de César. Ensuite, nous nous focaliserons sur l’élément théâtral, qui est exploité à maintes reprises dans ces biographies.

    Mots-clés : Plutarque, Campagnes parthiques, Trajan, Conquête, Théâtre.

    Abstract: A relevant section of Plutarch’s Parallel Lives is dedicated to the Parthian military campaigns, most probably because of their relationship to the contemporary situation. This article analysis the narration of the projects that four main characters conducted in the Orient towards the end of the Roman Republic. Firstly, it investigates the relationships that Plutarch established among the Roman protagonists of these expeditions, according to his system of more or less explicit cross-references contained in his work. In particular, a focus will be put on the passage about Caesar’s last project of conquest. Secondly, it looks to the presence of a common theatrical feature in the narration, which is a recurrent stylistic element associated to the Parthian military campaigns.

    Keywords: Plutarch, Parthian Wars, Trajan, Conquest, Theater.


  • Auteur : Maxime BOUTEAU
    Plutarque et l’Arménie. Une barbarité exacerbée
    [Résumé]

    L’existence de Plutarque fut rythmée par de nombreuses actions romaines en Arménie : dans sa jeunesse, Corbulon y mena campagne contre Tiridate ; dans sa vieillesse, sous Trajan, l’Arménie devint pour un temps une province romaine. Par une étude des remarques géographiques et historiques et des épisodes d’affrontements entre Grecs et Romains et le monde arménien contenus dans l’immense œuvre de Plutarque, cet article entend éclairer les connaissances sur l’Arménie possédées par Plutarque, aussi bien que son projet. Le rapport de Plutarque à l’Arménie se construit exclusivement en termes de conflit. Contrairement à Hérodote, Plutarque n’est pas « philobarbare » et son Arménie cumule les deux figures des pires adversaires de Rome. Par des allers-retours entre l’étude du contexte de l’action et du contexte d’écriture, l’article montre comment Plutarque utilise ces connaissances sur l’Arménie pour répondre aux besoins de son projet des Vies parallèles.

    Mots-clés : Plutarque, Arménie, Géographie, Mythes, Histoire, Armée, Lucullus, Antoine, Tigrane, Artavasde, Tigranocerte.

    Abstract: Plutarch’s existence was punctuated by many Roman actions in Armenia: in his youth, Corbulon campaigned against Tiridates there; in his old age, under Trajan, Armenia became for a time a Roman province. By studying the geographical and historical remarks and episodes of clashes between Greeks and Romans and the Armenian world contained in Plutarch’s immense work, this article aims to shed light on Plutarch’s knowledge of Armenia, and his project as well. Plutarch’s relationship with Armenia is built exclusively in terms of conflict. Unlike Herodotus, Plutarch is not “philobarbarian” and his Armenia combines the two figures of Rome’s worst opponents. By going back and forth between the study of the context of the action and the context of writing, the article shows how Plutarch uses this knowledge about Armenia to meet the needs of his Parallel Lives project.

    Keywords: Plutarch, Armenia, Geography, Myths, History, Army, Lucullus, M. Antonius, Tigranes, Artavades, Tigranocerta.